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EMF Studies

07 April 2018

Eighteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (5 April 2018)

Since August, 2016, Dr. Moscowitz has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world who have subscribed to his email list. The collection of abstracts currently contains more than 350 papers. Due to numerous requests to post these abstracts, he has compiled the collection into a document which can be downloaded from his web site. [Our blog, "Towards Better Health" will continue to post the latest studies and keep them on our site for one year.]

For more information

Eighteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 5 April 2018

Radio Frequency Fields

Final results regarding brain & heart tumors in rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone RF (1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission)

Falcioni et al (2018). Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission. Environmental Research.


Background: In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM – and CDMA –modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users.

Objectives: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors.

Methods: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day.

Results: A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. These experimental studies provide
sufficient evidence to call for the reevaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans.

Among male rats, the incidence of heart schwannoma and hyperplasia was 0.7% (3 of 412) in the control group, 1.2% (5/401) in the 5 volts/meter (V/m) group, 1.0% (2/209) in the 25 V/m group, and 3.9% (8/207) in the 50 V/m group. The 50 V/m group had significantly greater incidence than the control group (p < .02).

Among male rats, the incidence of glioma and glial cell hyperplasia in the control group was 0.0% (0 of 412), 0.7% (3/401) in the 5 volts/meter (V/m) group, 1.4% (3/209) in the 25 V/m group, and 0.0% (0/207) in the 50 V/m group.



Brain tumors: rise in Glioblastoma incidence in England 1995–2015 suggests adverse environmental or lifestyle factor

Alasdair Philips, Denis L. Henshaw, Graham Lamburn, and Michael O'Carroll. Brain tumours: rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995–2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, in press.


• A clear description of the changing pattern in incidence of brain tumour types
• The study used extensive data from an official and recognised quality source
• The study included histological and morphological information
• The study identified a significant and concerning incidence time trend
• Some evidence is provided to help guide future research into causal mechanisms


Objective To investigate detailed trends in malignant brain tumour incidence over a recent time period.

Methods UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) data covering 81,135 ICD10 C71 brain tumours diagnosed in England (1995–2015) were used to calculate incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years, age–standardised to the European Standard Population (ESP–2013).

Results We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) across all ages. The ASR for GBM more than doubled from 2.4 to 5.0, with annual case numbers rising from 983 to 2531. Overall, this rise is mostly hidden in the overall data by a reduced incidence of lower grade tumours.

Conclusions The rise is of importance for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology. The rise cannot be fully accounted for by promotion of lower–grade tumours, random chance or improvement in diagnostic techniques as it affects specific areas of the brain and only one type of brain tumour. Despite the large variation in case numbers by age, the percentage rise is similar across the age groups which suggests widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible.



Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health

Pall M.L. Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environmental Research. 164:405-416. 2018.


Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs. Each of these seven is also produced by downstream effects of the main action of such EMFs, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. While VGCC activation via EMF interaction with the VGCC voltage sensor seems to be the predominant mechanism of action of EMFs, other mechanisms appear to have minor roles. Minor roles include activation of other voltage-gated ion channels, calcium cyclotron resonance and the geomagnetic magnetoreception mechanism.

Five properties of non-thermal EMF effects are discussed. These are that pulsed EMFs are, in most cases, more active than are non-pulsed EMFs; artificial EMFs are polarized and such polarized EMFs are much more active than non-polarized EMFs; dose-response curves are non-linear and non-monotone; EMF effects are often cumulative; and EMFs may impact young people more than adults.

These general findings and data presented earlier on Wi-Fi effects were used to assess the Foster and Moulder (F&M) review of Wi-Fi. The F&M study claimed that there were seven important studies of Wi-Fi that each showed no effect. However, none of these were Wi-Fi studies, with each differing from genuine Wi-Fi in three distinct ways. F&M could, at most conclude that there was no statistically significant evidence of an effect. The tiny numbers studied in each of these seven F&M-linked studies show that each of them lack power to make any substantive conclusions.

In conclusion, there are seven repeatedly found Wi-Fi effects which have also been shown to be caused by other similar EMF exposures. Each of the seven should be considered, therefore, as established effects of Wi-Fi.



Favorable and Unfavorable EMF Frequency Patterns in Cancer: Perspectives for Improved Therapy and Prevention
Meijer DKF, Geesink HJH. Favourable and Unfavourable EMF Frequency Patterns in Cancer: Perspectives for Improved Therapy and Prevention. Journal Cancer Therapy. 9(3):188-230. 2018.

Carcinogenesis fits in a frequency pattern of electromagnetic field (EMF) waves, in which a gradual loss of cellular organization occurs. Such generation of cancer features can be inhibited by adequate exposure to coherent electromagnetic frequencies. However, cancer can also be initiated and promoted at other distinct frequencies of electromagnetic waves. Both observations were revealed by analyzing 100 different EMF frequency data reported in a meta-analyses of 123 different, earlier published, biomedical studies. The studied EM frequencies showed a fractal pattern of 12 beneficial (anti-cancer) frequencies, and 12 detrimental (cancer promoting) frequencies, that form the central pattern of a much wider self-similar EMF spectrum of cancer inhibiting or promoting activities. Inhibiting of the cancer process, and even curing of the disease, can thus be considered through exposure to the coherent type of EM fields. Stabilization of the disease can be understood by constructive resonance of macromolecules in the cancer cell with the externally appied coherent EMF field frequencies, called solitons/polarons. The latter, for instance, have been shown earlier to induce repair in DNA/RNA conformation and/or epigenetic changes. The field of EMF treatment of cancer disorders is rapidly expanding and our studies may invite further experimental and clinical studies in which systematically various potential EMF treatment protocols could be applied, with combined and modulated frequencies, to obtain even more efficient EMF anti-cancer therapies.

Open access paper: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=82944


Fatal collision? Are wireless headsets a risk in treating patients?

Cindy Sage & Lennart Hardell (2018): Fatal collision? Are wireless headsets a risk in treating patients?, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online Feb 5, 2018. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2017.1422261


Wireless-enabled headsets that connect to the internet can provide remote transcribing of patient examination notes. Audio and video can be captured and transmitted by wireless signals sent from the computer screen in the frame of the glasses. But using wireless glass-type devices can expose the user to a specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.11–1.46 W/kg of radiofrequency radiation. That RF intensity is as high as or higher than RF emissions of some cell phones. Prolonged use of cell phones used ipsilaterally at the head has been associated with statistically significant increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. Using wireless glasses for extended periods to teach, to perform surgery, or conduct patient exams will expose the medical professional to similar RF exposures which may impair brain performance, cognition and judgment, concentration and attention and increase the risk for brain tumors. The quality of medical care may be compromised by extended use of wireless-embedded devices in health care settings. Both medical professionals and their patients should know the risks of such devices and have a choice about allowing their use during patient exams. Transmission of sensitive patient data over wireless networks may increase the risk of hacking and security breaches leading to losses of private patient medical and financial data that are strictly protected under HIPPA health information privacy laws



Meeting the imperative to accelerate environmental bioelectromagnetics research

McKee L. Meeting the imperative to accelerate environmental bioelectromagnetics research. Environ Res. 2018 Feb 23;164:100-108. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.036


  • Concerns mount about adverse health effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) radiation.
  • Bioelectronics and environmental RF effects research both need an omics platform.
  • Standard bioelectromagnetic data models would advance dosimetry and omics work.
  • Steps toward developing standards and a shared research platform are proposed.


In this article, the author draws on his experience in the world of geospatial information technology standards to suggest a path toward acceleration of bioelectromagnetics science. Many studies show biological effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) radiation despite that fact that the radiation is too weak to cause temperature changes in biological features. Considered together in worst case scenarios, such effects, many of which appear to have long latencies, could have potentially disastrous consequences for the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Other studies show no such effects, and in both cases, often there are significant research quality deficits that make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from the data. The progress of bioelectromagnetics science is retarded by a lack of standard data models and experimental protocols that could improve the overall quality of research and make it easier for researchers to benefit from omics-related bioinformatics resources. "Certainty of safety" of wireless devices used in digital communications and remote sensing (radar) is impossible without dosimetry standards that reflect the effects of non-thermal exposures. Electrical signaling in biological systems, a poorly funded research domain, is as biologically important as chemical signaling, a richly funded research domain, and these two types of signaling are inextricably connected. Entreprenuerial scientists pursuing bioelectronic innovations have begun to attract new funding. With appropriate institutional coordination, this new funding could equally benefit those investigating environmental effects of ELF and RF radiation. The author proposes a concerted effort among both bioelectronics technology stakeholders and environmental bioelectromagnetics science researchers to collaborate in developing institutional arrangements and standard data models that would give the science a stronger bioinformatics platform and give researchers better access to omics data. What is proposed here is essentially a bioelectromagnetics omics initiative.


The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.032.


• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band. In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned. We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.



The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


Effect of cell phone RFR on body temperature in rodents: Pilot studies of NTP’s reverberation chamber exposure system
Wyde ME, Horn TL, Capstick MH, Ladbury JM, Koepke G, Wilson PF, Kissling GE, Stout MD, Kuster N, Melnick RL, Gauger J, Bucher JR, McCormick DL. Effect of cell phone radiofrequency radiation on body temperature in rodents: Pilot studies of the National Toxicology Program's reverberation chamber exposure system. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Apr;39(3):190-199. doi: 10.1002/bem.22116.


Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days. In general, fewer and less severe increases in body temperature were observed in young than in older rats. SAR-dependent increases in subcutaneous body temperatures were observed at exposures ≥6 W/kg in both modulations. Exposures of  ≥10 W/kg GSM or CDMA RFR induced excessive increases in body temperature, leading to mortality. There was also a significant increase in the number of resorptions in pregnant rats at 12 W/kg GSM RFR. In mice, only sporadic increases in body temperature were observed regardless of sex or age when exposed to GSM or CDMA RFR up to 12 W/kg. These results identified SARs at which measurable RFR-mediated thermal effects occur, and were used in the selection of exposures for subsequent toxicology and carcinogenicity studies.



Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz of non-ionizing radiation exhibit behavioral changes with increased brain expression of apoptotic caspase 3

Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla. Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz of non-ionizing radiation exhibit behavioral changes with increased brain expression of apoptotic caspase 3. Pathophysiology. 25(1):19-30. March 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2017.11.001


• The exposure to non-ionizing radiation of 2.45 GHz caused detrimental changes in rat brain leading to learning and memory decline and expression of anxiety behavior.
• The exposure to radiation induced oxidative stress and fall in brain antioxidants.
• The exposure triggered the gene expression of caspase 3.


In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4 GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure for 4 h/day for 45 days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2.45 GHz radiation exposed rats elicited memory decline and anxiety behavior. Exposure decreased activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels whereas increased levels of brain lipid peroxidation was encountered in the radiation exposed rats, showing compromised anti-oxidant defense. Expression of caspase 3 gene in brain samples were quantified which unraveled notable increase in the apoptotic marker caspase 3 in 2.45 GHz radiation exposed group as compared to sham exposed group. No significant changes were observed in histopathological examinations and brain levels of TNF-α. Analysis of dendritic arborization of neurons showcased reduction in number of dendritic branching and intersections which corresponds to alteration in dendritic structure of neurons, affecting neuronal signaling. The study clearly indicates that exposure of rats to microwave radiation of 2.45 GHz leads to detrimental changes in brain leading to lowering of learning and memory and expression of anxiety behavior in rats along with fall in brain antioxidant enzyme systems.


The animals of group 2 were exposed to the 2.45 GHz radiation for 4 h/day for 45 days between 10 am to 6 pm, at a power density of 7.88 W/m2.

... the radiated power absorbed by the body of rat was calculated to be 0.04728 W.


The study was an attempt to draw attention towards the adverse effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations (NI-EMR) in the frequency that is used widely in the field of telecommunication. Many studies have captured the impact of the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequencies, however the frequency of radiation in Wi-Fi range has not been much explored. Along with the use of cell phones there is a growing concern with the use of Wi-Fi devices which continuously emit radiations in the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Hence we thought it prudent to investigate the impact of radiation of the frequency of 2.45 GHz. It can be concluded that the exposure to non-ionizing radiation of 2.45 GHz caused detrimental changes in rat brain leading to learning and memory decline and expression of anxiety behavior along with fall in brain antioxidants. The exposure triggered the gene expression of caspase 3 which plays a major role in the apoptotic pathway. The chronic impact of non-ionizing radiation needs to be thoroughly evaluated in humans so that combative steps can be taken.



Intensity-time dependence dosing criterion in the EMF exposure guidelines in Russia

Rubtsova N, Paltsev Y, Perov S, Bogacheva E. Intensity-time dependence dosing criterion in the EMF exposure guidelines in Russia. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018 Mar 1:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2017.1414056.


Major approaches of the Russian Federation in setting of exposure guidelines to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in occupational and public environments are discussed in this paper. EMF exposure guidelines in Russia are based on the results of hygienic, clinical, physiological, epidemiological and experimental studies and are frequency-dependent. The concept of a threshold principle of occupational and environmental factors due to hazardous exposure effects has been used to set permissible exposure levels of different EMF frequency ranges. The data of experimental studies showed hazardous threshold levels of EMF effects. The main criteria of EMF hazardous exposure evaluated in the experimental study concerned both estimation of threshold levels of chronic (long-term) and acute exposure. Also, this paper contains some recent experimental study data on correlation of long-term radiofrequency and power-frequency EMF exposure effects with regard to time duration, the so-called time-dependence approach. It enables identification of the value of permissible EMF exposure levels depending on exposure duration. This approach is used in occupational exposure guideline setting and requires the introduction of "power exposition" (PE) and "maximal permissible level" (MPL). In general, EMF exposure guidelines are established with regard to possible duration of exposure per day.



The most important unknown effect is that of concomitant exposure to EMF from different sources.


Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report

Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg, Lena K. Hedendahl. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report. Oncology Letters. Published online on: March 16, 2018 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.8285


Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non‑ionizing radiation. These non‑thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2‑112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down‑links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non‑thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long‑term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

Open Access Paper: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2018.8285/abstract


The effects of microwave radiation on rabbit's retina

Mohammad R. Talebnejad MR,Sadeghi-Sarvestani A, Hossein Nowroozzadeh M, Mortazavi SMJ, Khalili MR.The effects of microwave radiation on rabbit's retina. Journal of Current Ophthalmology. 30(1):74-79. Mar 2018.

Purpose Mobile cell phones are used extensively these days, and their microwave (MW) radiation has been shown to affect the eye. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MW radiation on rabbit retina.

Methods This experimental study (concluded in 2015) was conducted on 40 adult white New Zealand rabbits. A Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) cell phone simulator was used for MW irradiation. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 in each) and treated as follows: Group 1: no irradiation (sham); Group 2: irradiation at 10 cm for 1 day; Group 3: irradiation at 30 cm for 1 day; Group 4: irradiation at 10 cm for 3 days; and Group 5: irradiation at 30 cm for 3 days. Scotopic and photopic electroretinography (ERG) responses were obtained at baseline and 7 days after the last exposure. Then all the rabbits were euthanized, and their eyes were enucleated and sent for pathology examination. Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to evaluate intergroup differences in ERG parameters and histological findings, respectively.

Results ERG responses obtained 7 days after irradiation did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups (P > 0.1, for all tested parameters). There were statistically non-significant trends toward greater changes in the MW irradiated eyes. In pathological examination, retina was normal with no sign of degeneration or infiltration. Ciliary body congestion was observed in greater fraction of those who received higher MW doses. (P = 0.005).

Conclusions Histopathologically, cell phone simulated MW irradiation had no significant detrimental effect on the retina. However, ciliary body congestion was observed in greater fraction of those who received higher MW doses. Although there was no significant difference between post-treatment mean ERG values, there were statistically non-significant trends toward greater changes in the MW irradiated eyes.



Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test

Vargová B, Majláth I, Kurimský J, Cimbala R, Kosterec M, Tryjanowski P, Jankowiak Ł, Raši T, Majláthová V. Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test. Exp Appl Acarol. 2018 Mar 31. doi: 10.1007/s10493-018-0253-z.


Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.



The results of testing D. reticulatus ticks in RST multi tubes revealed that ticks are attracted significantly more to a frequency of 900 MHz RF-EMF frequency in comparison to control or 5000 MHz RF-EMF frequency. Lázaro et al. (2016) found similar phenomenon in wild bees and bee flies which were attracted by the source of artificial EMF exposure in natural habitat (Lázaro et al. 2016). However, the exposure to 900 MHz FR-EMF radiation on D. reticulatusc showed specific behavioural response of ticks, the reaction was presented by unusual specific sudden movements during the RF-EMF exposition, which was described as a body jerking or leg jerking (Vargová et al. 2017).

According to our laboratory findings, we hypothesize that RF-EMF radiation could influence the distribution of ticks in the natural habitats. The RF-EMF radiation of various frequencies can be, besides humidity, temperature or host presence, one of the factors causing non-homogenous or rather mosaic distribution of ticks in the natural habitats.

We confirmed the extraordinary preference and active movement of D. reticulatus ticks towards the electromagnetic field from the radio wave spectrum of 900 MHz frequency. This RF-EMF tick preference may point to a new phenomenon with possibly important ecological and epidemiological consequences. Increasing electromagnetic waves by using personal electronic devices in natural habitats where ticks occur could increase the risk tick infestation and diseases transmission. Further studies should be undertaken to support this hypothesis, which analyse the impact of RF-EMF directly in the natural habitats of ticks.


Effect of Ginkgo biloba on hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation

Gevrek, F. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation. Histology and Histopathology. 33(5):463-473. May 2018. DOI: 10.14670/HH-11-943


Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate. Rats were divided into three groups: Control, EMR, and EMR+Egb761. The EMR and EMR+Egb761 groups were exposed to cellphone EMR for one month. Egb761 was also administered to the EMR+Egb761 group. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampi at harmful EMR levels (0.96 W/kg specific absorption rate [SAR]) for one month and also investigated the possible impact of Egb761 using stereological, TUNEL-staining, and immunohistochemical methods. An increase in apoptotic proteins (Bax, Acas-3) and a decrease in anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) immuno-reactivity along with a decrease in the total granule and pyramidal cell count were noted in the EMR group. A decrease in Bax and Acas-3 and an increase in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity were observed in rats treated with Egb761 in addition to a decrease in TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells and a higher total viable cell number. In conclusion, chronic cellphone EMR exposure may affect hippocampal cell viability, and Egb761 may be used to mitigate some of the deleterious effects.


Genotoxicity and genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872 MHz RF and chemicals

Herrala M, Mustafa E, Naarala J, Juutilainen J. Assessment of genotoxicity and genomic in stability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872MHz radiofrequency radiation and chemicals. International journal of radiation biology. Epub 2018 Mar 23. DOI:10.1080/09553002.2018.1450534


PURPOSE: We examined genotoxicity, co-genotoxicity and induced genomic instability (IGI) in primary astrocytes exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 872MHz GSM-modulated or continuous wave (CW) RF radiation at specific absorption rates of 0.6 or 6.0 W/kg for 24h. Menadione (MQ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; only in genotoxicity experiments) were used as co-exposures. Alkaline Comet assay and flow cytometric micronucleus scoring were used to detect genetic damage.

RESULTS: No IGI was observed from RF radiation alone or combined treatment with MQ. RF radiation alone was not genotoxic. RF radiation combined with chemical exposure showed some statistically significant differences: increased DNA damage at 6.0 W/kg but decreased DNA damage at 0.6 W/kg in cells exposed to GSM-modulated RF radiation and MQ, and increased micronucleus frequency in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 0.6 W/kg and MMS.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to GSM modulated RF radiation at levels up to 6.0 W/kg did not induce or enhance genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes. Lack of genotoxicity from RF radiation alone was convincingly shown in multiple experiments. Co-genotoxicity of RF radiation and genotoxic chemicals was not consistently supported by the results.


Exposure of Insects to RF EMF from 2 to 120 GHz

Thielens A, Bell D, Mortimore DB, Greco MK, Martens L, Joseph W. Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHz. Scientific Reports. 8:3924. Mar 2, 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22271-3


Insects are continually exposed to Radio-Frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields at different frequencies. The range of frequencies used for wireless telecommunication systems will increase in the near future from below 6 GHz (2 G, 3 G, 4 G, and WiFi) to frequencies up to 120 GHz (5 G). This paper is the first to report the absorbed RF electromagnetic power in four different types of insects as a function of frequency from 2 GHz to 120 GHz. A set of insect models was obtained using novel Micro-CT (computer tomography) imaging. These models were used for the first time in finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulations. All insects showed a dependence of the absorbed power on the frequency. All insects showed a general increase in absorbed RF power at and above 6 GHz, in comparison to the absorbed RF power below 6 GHz. Our simulations showed that a shift of 10% of the incident power density to frequencies above 6 GHz would lead to an increase in absorbed power between 3-370%


Figure 4 illustrates the frequency dependence of the absorption of RF-EMFs in the Western Honeybee in terms of the ratio of the electric field strength inside the insect to the maximum electric field in the simulation domain. At the currently used frequencies for telecommunication (<6 GHz), the wavelength is relatively large compared to the insects and the waves do not penetrate into the insects, which results in lower Pabs values. At 12–24 GHz, the fields penetrate more and more into the insect as the wavelength becomes comparable to the insects’ size and the conductivity increases as well. At the highest studied frequencies, the fields penetrate less deep into the insect, but their amplitude is higher, resulting in a similar or slightly lower P abs .

Figure 5 shows the P abs linearly averaged over all twelve plane waves as a function of frequency for all studied insects. The absorbed power increases with increasing frequency from 2–6 GHz for all insects under exposure at a constant incident power density or incident electric field strength of 1 V/m...

The three smaller insects show their maximum at a frequency higher than 6 GHz: 60 GHz, 24 GHz, and 12 GHz for the Australian Stingless Bee, the Beetle, and the Honey Bee, respectively....

We investigated the absorbed radio-frequency electromagnetic power in four different real insects as a function of frequency from 2–120 GHz. Micro-CT imaging was used to obtain realistic models of real insects. These models were assigned dielectric parameters obtained from literature and used in finite-difference time-domain simulations. All insects show a dependence of the absorbed power on the frequency with a peak frequency that depends on their size and dielectric properties. The insects show a maximum in absorbed radio frequency power at wavelengths that are comparable to their body size. They show a general increase in absorbed radio-frequency power above 6 GHz (until the frequencies where the wavelengths are comparable to their body size), which indicates that if the used power densities do not decrease, but shift (partly) to higher frequencies, the absorption in the studied insects will increase as well. A shift of 10% of the incident power density to frequencies above 6 GHz would lead to an increase in absorbed power between 3–370%. This could lead to changes in insect behaviour, physiology, and morphology over time due to an increase in body temperatures, from dielectric heating. The studied insects that are smaller than 1 cm show a peak in absorption at frequencies (above 6 GHz), which are currently not often used for telecommunication, but are planned to be used in the next generation of wireless telecommunication systems. At frequencies above the peak frequency (smaller wavelengths) the absorbed power decreases slightly.

Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-22271-3


Extremely Low Frequency Fields

Results of lifespan exposure to ELF EMF administered alone to Sprague Dawley rats

L. Bua, E. Tibaldi, L. Falcioni, M. Lauriola, L. De Angelis, F. Gnudi, M. Manservigi, F. Manservisi, I. Manzoli, I. Menghetti, R. Montella, S. Panzacchi, D. Sgargi, V. Strollo, A. Vornoli, D. Mandrioli, Results of lifespan exposure to continuous and intermittent extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF) administered alone to Sprague Dawley rats Environmental Research. 164:271-279. July 2018.


• Carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF whole-body chronic exposure were evaluated on rats.
• Exposure to ELFEMF alone does not represent risk factor for neoplastic development.
• ELFEMF might act as a cancer enhancer if co-administered to other known carcinogens.


Background Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0.1 Gy) (Soffritti et al., 2016a) (Soffritti et al., 2016b). The same doses of known carcinogenic agents (50 mg/l formaldehyde, or acute 0.1 Gy γ-radiation), when administered alone, previously failed to induce any statistically significant increase in the incidence of total and specific malignant tumors in rats of the sa me colony.

Objectives A lifespan whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the possible carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF exposure administered alone to Sprague-Dawley rats, as part of the integrated project of the Ramazzini Institute (RI) for studying the effects on health of ELFEMF alone or in combination with other known carcinogens.

Methods Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 19 h/day to continuous sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic fields (S-50 Hz MF) at flux densities of 0 (control group), 2, 20, 100 or 1000µT, and to intermittent (30 min on/30 min off) S-50 Hz MF at 1000 µT, from prenatal life until natural death.

Results Survival and body weight trends in all groups of rats exposed to ELFEMF were comparable to those found in sex-matched controls. The incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors was similar in all groups. Magnetic field exposure did not significantly increase the incidence of neoplasias in any organ, including those sites that have been identified as possible targets in epidemiological studies (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer).

Conclusions Life-span exposures to continuous and intermittent sinusoidal-50 Hz ELFEMFs, when administered alone, did not represent a significant risk factor for neoplastic development in our experimental rat model. In light of our previous results on the carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF in combination with formaldehyde and γ-radiation, further experiments are necessary to elucidate the possible role of ELFEMF as cancer enhancer in presence of other chemical and physical carcinogens.



ELF MF and Redox-Responsive Pathways Linked to Cancer Drug Resistance: Insights from Co-Exposure-Based In Vitro Studies

Falone S, Santini S, Cordone V, Di Emidio G, Tatone C, Caachio M, Amicarelli F. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Redox-Responsive Pathways Linked to Cancer Drug Resistance: Insights from Co-Exposure-Based In Vitro Studies. 23 Feb 2018.https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00033

Electrical devices currently used in clinical practice and common household equipments generate extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as “possible carcinogenic.” Assuming that ELF-MF plays a role in the carcinogenic process without inducing direct genomic alterations, ELF-MF may be involved in the promotion or progression of cancers. In particular, ELF-MF-induced responses are suspected to activate redox-responsive intracellular signaling or detoxification scavenging systems. In fact, improved protection against oxidative stress and redox-active xenobiotics is thought to provide critical proliferative and survival advantage in tumors. On this basis, an ever-growing research activity worldwide is attempting to establish whether tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance through the activation of essential cytoprotective networks in the presence of ELF fields, and how this might trigger relevant changes in tumor phenotype. This review builds a framework around how the activity of redox-responsive mediators may be controlled by co-exposure to ELF-MF and reactive oxygen species-generating agents in tumor and cancer cells, in order to clarify whether and how such potential molecular targets could help to minimize or neutralize the functional interaction between ELF-MF and malignancies.

Open Access Paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00033/full

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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